Copyright © 2004-2005 The OpenNMS Group, Inc.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts and with no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is available at http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html
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OpenNMS is the creation of numerous people and organizations, operating under the umbrella of the OpenNMS project. The original code base was developed and published under the GPL by the Oculan Corporation until 2002, when the project administration was passed on to Tarus Balog.
The current corporate sponsor of OpenNMS is The OpenNMS Group, which also owns the OpenNMS trademark.
OpenNMS is a derivative work, containing both original code, included code and modified code that was published under the GNU General Public License. Please see the source for detailed copyright notices, but some notable copyright owners are listed below:
OpenNMS is the world's first enterprise-grade network management system developed under the open source model. As with any complex and powerful system, getting it installed and configured can take a little effort. It is the purpose of this document to explain what is required to get OpenNMS installed.
So, how should you use this document? It is arranged in the following sections:
The programs on which OpenNMS depends, and how they need to be modified
Installation and upgrade instructions, including details for spectific operating systems and distributions
Getting started with OpenNMS, including initial configuration and logging into the web interface
Building OpenNMS from source
Troubleshooting and Where to Get Help
This installation guide relies strongly on the idea of "packages." Most modern operating systems and distributions have a system where software can be installed and managed through the use of packages that group the files belonging to a given application together (as well as managing changes to those files, removal, upgrades, etc.).
Please see the latest release notes to see if your operating system is supported. Currently OpenNMS runs on many Linux distributions, Solaris and Mac OS X.
This guide assumes that if you use packages, you do so consistently. This is because OpenNMS will attempt to determine if the software it requires is installed by using the operating system's built in package management system. If you've installed, say, Java, but not via packages, OpenNMS will be unable to determine that Java is installed and it will fail.
To get back to the original question of "how should you use this document," first go through the second section to insure that you have all of the prerequisite applications properly installed and configured. Use the third section to help get those packages installed for your particular operating system, as well as the OpenNMS software. Finally, use the last section to help correct any errors your might encounter.
While it is impossible to exactly size OpenNMS for a particular environment, the following represents the minimum requirements for installation, assuming a network of about 200 devices. Note that OpenNMS can monitor more than 100 times that given the proper hardware.
A 1 GHz Pentium III (or equivalent processor) or better. OpenNMS can also take advantage of multiple processors.
A minimum of 256 MB of RAM, although 512 MB is strongly recommended. The OpenNMS Java Virtual Machine benefits from large amounts of memory, up to 2 GB.
OpenNMS requires about 25 MB of disk space for the program
files. In addition, each data variable collected requires, by
default, 283 KB of disk space. It is safe to assume that each
interface being managed will require around 2 MB of disk space, so
for 200 interfaces you are looking at 400 MB (conservatively).
Depending on the number of events stored, you can assume 100 MB to
200 MB are required for the database. Finally, the OpenNMS logs can
grow quite large, especially in debug mode. Edit the
log4j.properties file in the OpenNMS
configuration directory (usually
/etc/opennms) to change those settings. For a
minimum system, 800 MB to 1 GB should be sufficient.
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OpenNMS is written mainly in Java, although there are a few JNI calls to some C code in order to implement things such as ICMP. and so it follows that Java would need to be installed.
As the current code has a small dependency on a Sun-only library ("com.sun.net.ssl.internal.www.protocol" in the HTTPS Monitor), it is recommended that Sun's SDK is used. It should be possible to use IBM's SDK, but you'll get an error in the logs when the poller starts.
The instructions below are on using Sun's Java distribution, however a number of users have had success with the Blackdown builds of Sun's Java.
XXX Add something about 32-bit vs 64-bit for libjicmp and librrd.
Add the following to /etc/apt/sources.list and update, (i.e. "apt-get update").
For Woody, add:
deb http://debian.opennms.org/ debian/opennms stable
For Sid, add:
deb http://debian.opennms.org/ debian/opennms unstable
Next, obtain and install a suitable version of Java. Because of licensing issues, a suitable Java SDK cannot be distributed with OpenNMS so you will have to obtain and install one yourself prior to installing OpenNMS. You have two options here:
sun-jdk1.4-installer package and build
script to download the j2sdk from Sun and build your own j2sdk1.4
Building and installing a
ava-common package is a dependency for
j2sdk1.4 package you will be creating, and
since it will be installed by
apt will not be there to pull it in so
install it first:
#apt-get install java-common
Next, install the
#apt-get install sun-jdk1.4-installer
Download the Java 1.4.2 SDK from Sun. Make sure that you
get the non-RPM binary package (the "
Then run the following command to build the package:
is the binary file you downloaded from Sun.
And finally install the package:
#dpkg -i j2sdk-1_4_2_05-linux-i586.deb
is the Debian package that was just created by
Obtain and install and your own version and meet the OpenNMS
packages dependencies by installing the
#apt-get install java-virtual-machine
It is important to install the SDK instead of the JRE, as Tomcat will need to compile Java code (which requires "javac" in the SDK).
You will need to use Sun's Java 2 Platform, Standard Edition,
version 1.4.2 or later. You can download it
from Sun's Java website. Step
through the licensing process and then download the proper version of
Java for your operating system. If you will be using an RPM-based Linux
package of OpenNMS, you will need to download the RPM package of Java,
otherwise, you will want the "
.bin" file. Install Java
according to the instructions from Sun.
Tomcat is part of the Jakarta project in Apache, and it is a Java servlet engine. What that means is that Tomcat is a web server that serves up HTML that is built from small Java programs called "servlets". Note that this is much different than Java "applets"--servlets are run on the server, not downloaded to the browser. Once a servlet is compiled, Tomcat will cache it, which means that the first visit to a particular page may be slow, but subsequent visits should be rather fast.
The latest version of Tomcat is Tomcat5, however OpenNMS does not work with Tomcat5 due to using Tomcat4-specific authentication features. This will be changed in a future version, but for now, you need to use Tomcat4.
Recent versions of the Tomcat package in Sid, (unstable), use
jikes as the compiler instead of the javac from your toolkit. Open up
/etc/tomcat4/web.xml in your favorite editor and
comment out the "
compiler init param"
The Tomcat4 package that ships with Fedora Core 2 does not appear
to reliably run, even when the OpenNMS web app is not installed. For
now, we suggest using the tomcat4 packages on the OpenNMS FTP
site. You'll want to install both packages,
There is a bug in some kernels that can cause Java processes, and even the entire kernel to hang. It is documented in Red Hat bug #121902. You should make sure you are running at least a 2.6.6-422 kernel.
SuSE 9 ships with Tomcat 5, which will not work with OpenNMS. You will need to de-install the Tomcat 5 packages if they are installed and install Tomcat 4 from an older release of SuSE. The Tomcat 4 packages for SuSE 8.1 seem to work just fine. They are available on SuSE's FTP site.
We need to make a few changes to Tomcat. Most of these should be done via the installer, but you will need to make a few changes by hand. These two changes will need to be made manually to Tomcat:
Tomcat must be configured to use the same installation of Java that OpenNMS uses.
Tomcat needs to be able to read and write the configuration files of OpenNMS. This can be done one of two ways. The first option is making Tomcat run as root and the second is making the OpenNMS configuration files readable and writable by the user Tomcat runs as.
Many Linux distributions have a
configuration file where you can set configuration parameters. It is in
/etc/tomcat4/ on the Red Hat and Fedora series of
Linux distributions. It looks like this:
j# tomcat /etc/rc.d script example configuration file # Use with version 1.07 of the scripts or later # Use Jpackage utils if present if [ -x /usr/bin/java-functions ]; then . /usr/bin/java-functions set_jvm fi # Source Java system configuration if exist if [ -r /etc/java/java.conf ]; then . /etc/java/java.conf fi # you could also override JAVA_HOME here # Where your java installation lives # JAVA_HOME="/usr/java/jdk" # JAVA_HOME="/opt/IBMJava2-131" # You can pass some parameters to java # here if you wish to #JAVACMD="$JAVA_HOME/bin/java -Xminf0.1 -Xmaxf0.3" # Where your tomcat installation lives # That change from previous RPM where TOMCAT_HOME # used to be /var/tomcat. # Now /var/tomcat will be the base for webapps only CATALINA_HOME="/var/tomcat4" JASPER_HOME="/var/tomcat4" CATALINA_TMPDIR="/var/tomcat4/temp" # What user should run tomcat TOMCAT_USER="tomcat" # You can change your tomcat locale here #LANG=en_US # If you wish to further customize your tomcat environment, # put your own definitions here # (i.e. LD_LIBRARY_PATH for some jdbc drivers) # Just do not forget to export them
In this file, you can change the location of the Java environment
and the user that Tomcat runs as by changing
variables, respectively. You can add a line for
JAVA_HOME that points to your installation of Java,
To change the Tomcat user, you would set:
If you are using a Linux distribution or another operating system
(e.g.: Solaris, Mac OS X) that does not have a
tomcat4.conf file, you will need to figure out how
effect the same changes. Please feel free to post your details as an
enhancement bug to the OpenNMS bug database or send an email to the
opennms-install mailing list and we will add it to this
If you choose not to set the user that runs Tomcat to
root, you will need to make the following changes so that
the Tomcat user can read and write the OpenNMS configuration files. This
process adds the "
tomcat" and "
root" users to
tomcat4" group, and then changes permissions so that
tomcat4" group can write to the OpenNMS
etc" and "
You have to do this after the OpenNMS
software is installed.
tomcat" user should have been created on
installation of Tomcat--verify this by looking in
/etc/group and add
tomcat" and "
root" as members of the
tomcat4" group. It should look something like:
Locate the OpenNMS "
etc" directory. It is
/etc/opennms. It will have a number of files
with an "
.xml" extension, such as
capsd-configuration.xml. Run the
#chgrp -R $OPENNMS_HOME/etc
#chmod -R g+w $OPENNMS_HOME/etc
$OPENNMS_HOME/etc is the OpenNMS
Locate the OpenNMS "
logs" directory. This
/var/log/opennms, and can be found
by looking in the
log4j.properties file in the
etc" directory (find an instance of
"File"). Run the commands:
#chgrp -R $OPENNMS_HOME/logs
#chmod -R g+w $OPENNMS_HOME/logs
$OPENNMS_HOME/logs is the OpenNMS
Tomcat will start with just the first change, but without the second change you'll start seeing errors in the OpenNMS logs, and administration commands run in the web UI will fail because Tomcat cannot change the configuration files.
RRDtool provides a "round robin" database that stores time-series data quickly and in a small amount of space. OpenNMS stores its performance-related data in RRD files created using RRDtool.
We require no special configuration for using RRDtool. As long as it was installed as a package, the OpenNMS package should be able to find it and configure itself to use the proper commands. We are known to work with any "1.0" version of RRDtool since 1.0.33.
XXX add a comment about 32-bit vs. 64-bit stuff for the iplike.so module
PostgreSQL (or "Postgres") is a relational database that OpenNMS uses to store information about devices on the network, as well as information about events, notifications and outages.
When installing OpenNMS, two things must happen. First, OpenNMS has to be able to contact the database over TCP/IP (even on localhost) and second, the installation process must be able to create the database.
OpenNMS requires version 7.2 or later of PostgreSQL. If you are
using a version of PostgreSQL prior to 7.4, the server error messages are
required to be in English (the 'C' locale). In particular, the parameter
lc_messages must be set to
This is set in
postgresql.conf in he PostgreSQL data
directory and it requires the database be restarted if you change the
setting. See the section below on
details on the location of the
The minimum packages you will need to install should be:
Note that Red Hat Enterprise Linux and CentOS call their PostgreSQL packages "rhdb" for the "Red Hat DataBase" and older releases of SuSE call their packages "postgres".
If you are using later releases Mandrake, around 9 or later, you also need:
Once you have installed Postgres, you will need to make two changes
to Postgres configuration files:
pg_hba.conf. These files are only created once
Postgres has been started, so if your installation method for Postgres did
not start the database, do so before continuing. Usually, startup scripts
will be placed in
Locate the Postgres "data" directory. Often this is /var/lib/pgsql/data. You should then find the two files we need to modify in that directory.
This file controls some basic parameters of Postgres. We need to change three of these parameters.
Find the line in the file that contains
tcpip_socket. It needs to read (this can be
ignored on PostgreSQL 8.0 and later as this is the default):
tcpip_socket = true
Make sure that there is no comment character ("#") in front of that line (or the other two that you change). This will enable OpenNMS to talk to the database.
Find the line in the file that contains
max_connections. It needs to read:
max_connections = 256
Find the line that contains
It needs to read:
shared_buffers = 1024
pg_hba.conf file controls which machines
and users can access the database on a given machine via TCP/IP.
Since that is how OpenNMS accesses the database (via
localhost) it is necessary to modify this file to allow
OpenNMS to work. The easiest thing to do is to just allow anyone from
the localhost to access the database (do not add the last line if your
system does not support IPv6):
# TYPE DATABASE USER IP-ADDRESS IP-MASK METHOD local all all trust host all all 127.0.0.1 255.255.255.255 trust host all all ::1 ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff trust
Make sure that no other lines are uncommented in this file.
You will need to stop and restart Postgres after making these changes.
You will need to install version 7.2 of Postgres (which was available in Red Hat Linux 7.3).
You will need to create an
postgres user, go to the
/usr/local/pgsql/bin directory, and run the
#./initdb -D /usr/local/pgsql/data -E ""
This will create the database. Following the instructions in the
section above, modify the
Then you'll need to start the database:
#./pg_ctl -D /usr/local/pgsql/data start
Now you are finished as the
The startup script uses
curl to connect to the
OpenNMS daemon to check that the various components are up and running
This is no longer needed starting with OpenNMS 1.1.4, as the Perl mailing has been replaced with a Java mailer.
Since OpenNMS uses Perl to mail availability reports, with some
mailers it is necessary to add the
application in order for the PDF files created by OpenNMS to be mailed
Like the Perl modules in the above section,
metamail can be found on the OpenNMS FTP site (which
includes and SRPM) if metamail is not directly available for your
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You need to be root when you execute the commands in this chapter.
Follow the instructions in either the fresh install section or the upgrade section, and then continue to the section on running the installer. If you have any errors during the installation process, please see the troubleshooting section of this guide.
Follow the instructions in this section appropriate for your operating system if you are performing a fresh install. If you are upgrading an existing installation of OpenNMS, see the next section.
Assuming that you have setup the apt repository in the prerequisities section, do this:
#apt-get install opennms
Optionally install the documentation and/or contrib packages
#apt-get install opennms-doc opennms-contrib
You can also download the appropriate packages for your version of Debian from the OpenNMS Files section on SourceForge.
Download the appropriate packages for your Linux distribution from the OpenNMS Files section on SourceForge.
#rpm -i opennms-1.1.5-0_<distribution>.<platform>.rpm
#rpm -i opennms-webapp-1.1.5-0_<distribution>.<platform>.rpm
#rpm -i opennms-docs-1.1.5-0_<distribution>.<platform>.rpm
Download the appropriate package for your Linux distribution from the OpenNMS Files section on SourceForge.
#gzip -d opennms-1.1.5-0-sol<version>-sparc-local.gz
#pkgadd -d `pwd`/opennms-1.1.5-0-sol<version>-sparc-local
Before you try to install from source, visit the chapter on "Building from Source," to first download and compile from source.
this will install into
dist in the same
directory as the
build.xml file unless you
install.dir as mentioned in the "Building
from Source" chapter.
Execute this command to install:
#sh build.sh install
XXX this section could use some more love, too.
Upgrades from a previous version of OpenNMS to a current one usually just involve installing a new package for your particular distribution.
For RPM-based distributions, this is pretty simple using the
rpm -Uvh [package name]" command.
In addition, the OpenNMS installer may attempt to make changes to the database. Follow the instructions later in this chapter for executing the installer. The changes should go smoothly, but as with the best laid plans things may go wrong. Make a backup of your PostgreSQL database per the details below before upgrading in case there are problems.
OpenNMS stores data in a number of locations:
OpenNMS configuration files. If the default structure of a
$OPENNMS_HOME/etc has changed between
versions, RPM will create a
" version of
that file. You will need to look at the changes between your file
and the new one and merge them manually, at the moment. The
diff -u <old file> <new file> |
less" can assist you in seeing what has changed.
RRD data files that store response time data and performance
data collected from SNMP. The installer should not touch the RRD
$OPENNMS_HOME/share/rrd. Unless you
are moving from RRDTool to jRobin, you should not have to worry
The OpenNMS web application. While data is not stored here, some users may customize the web interface and these customizations should be saved before upgrading OpenNMS.
Data about nodes, services, events, notifications, etc., are
stored in the
opennms table in PostgreSQL.
Things can go wrong on upgrades, so it is always a good idea to make a backup of important information before attempting the upgrade.
For OpenNMS, you should do two things:
Copy the contents of the
$OPENNMS_HOME/etc directory to a safe location.
Should an issue arise with any new files, you will want to be able
to recover your original
Make a backup of the postgres database. Using the
pg_dumpall command you can dump the entire
contents of the database to a file:
#pg_dumpall > old_data
will copy all of the data to a file called
old_data. You will want to run this as the
#sudo -u postgres pg_dumpall > old_data
To restore, run the command:
#sudo -u postgres psql -U postgres -f old_data template1
If you have made changes to the web application, you will want to save a copy of your changes, as well.
As mentioned earlier, there should be no need to backup the RRD files during an upgrade.
No matter which installation method above you choose, and whether
you are performing a fresh install or an upgrade, you still need to run
the installer. This tool will setup the
within PostgreSQL and also install the OpenNMS web application ("webapp"
or the "webUI") into Tomcat.
Before you execute the installer, OpenNMS needs to be configured
to use an appropriate Java Runtime Environment (JRE). The OpenNMS tool
runjava is used to set this up, and it can either
search for a suitable JRE or you can tell it exactly which JRE to
runjava with the "
option to search for a JRE:
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OpenNMS has a default host discovery configuration that probably
does not fit your organization. Edit
see something like this:
<discovery-configuration threads="1" packets-per-second="1" initial-sleep-time="300000" restart-sleep-time="86400000" retries="3" timeout="800"> <include-range retries="2" timeout="3000"> <begin>192.168.0.1</begin> <end>192.168.0.254</end> </include-range> <include-url>file:/opt/OpenNMS/etc/include</include-url> </discovery-configuration>
You will most likely want to change the beginning and end ranges
respectively). And you can add multiple
entries to fit your needs. If you would rather list the individual hosts
that you want to have discovered, you can insert
<specific> tags above the
<include-range> tag or place them in the file referrred
<include-url>, one IP address per line. Lastly,
if you prefer to use the web interface to add hosts for OpenNMS to
monitor, you can comment out the contents of this file completely (put
<!--" before the first line and "
after the last line).
This is an example and may vary based on your operating system:
If your operating system does not have a startup script for PostgreSQL or Tomcat4, you would execute something like this:
#sudo -u postgres /usr/local/pgsql/bin/pg_ctl -D /usr/local/pgsql/data start
Point your browser at
http://<host>:8080/opennms/ (port 8180 on
Debian Linux). The initial user name is "
admin" and the
password is "
If everything looks good, you can configure OpenNMS to start automatically at boot time. By default on most platforms OpenNMS does not start automatically until you configure it to do so.
This is enabled automatically when you install the Debian packages.
The OpenNMS packages add an init script in
however you need to execute
chkconfig to enable the
service to start automatically:
#chkconfig --add opennms
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OpenNMS is a complex software product, and it does not (yet) have a
./configure && make && make install"
build process like many other tools. If there is a packaged release for
your operating system, we highly suggest you use that instead. If you have
problems with a packaged release, please see the troubleshooting section
See the chaper on installing prerequisites for OpenNMS and install all prerequisites.
You can download source for a specific release, or you can download source directly from the source code respository (CVS). You probably want to download released source unless you wish to do development or are looking for specific features or bug fixes that are not yet in a release.
The commands listed below can be executed as any user, but they will all need to be executed as the same user.
Download the latest source release from the
file package in the OpenNMS
files section at SourceForge. The file name of the source
release will look something like
After you unarchive the source distribution, change directory into
and continue to the next section.
Login to the CVS server with an empty password:
$cvs -d:pserver:firstname.lastname@example.org:/cvsroot/opennms login
Check out the OpenNMS sources (this will fetch
HEAD, the most bleeding-edge version):
$cvs -z3 -d:pserver:email@example.com:/cvsroot/opennms co opennms
You will now have a directory called
Change into this directory and continue to the next section.
There are a few details about where RRDtool and PostgreSQL are
installed that the build process cannot (or does not yet) reliably
determine automatically. If you don't have RRDtool installed into
/usr or if the PostgreSQL server include directory is
/usr/include/pgsql/server, you will need to
You can be lazy and let the build process tell you if it cannot find any of these components.
By default, the install process will install OpenNMS into the
dist directory under the same directory that contains
build.xml. This is fine for testing (and probably
desireable), but if you want to install into somewhere for production use,
you need to set
install.dir. You probably want to add
a line like this to
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The following section contains advice for overcoming common installation issues. If your issue is not addressed below, please see the section on where to get help.
To assist with code management, the easiest way to install OpenNMS
is via packages. Every effort has been made to insure that the packages
OpenNMS depends on are required before the OpenNMS package can be
installed. You should be able to find those packages on the distribution
CDs that came with your system. For some of the more obscure packages,
metamail, you can visit the OpenNMS FTP site and check in the
/pub/dependencies directory. In addition, sites
like Ibiblio and FreshRPMs are also good
This can happen for a a number of reasons. You can run
opennms -v status" a few times after getting this error to
see if OpenNMS eventually starts itself completely and if not, to see
which daemons never start up completely. Hare are some of the likely
causes of this problem:
OpenNMS takes a while to startup. This can happen on larger
installations and when this happens "
opennms -v status"
will eventually show that all services have started up. By default,
the startup script will try 10 times to see if OpenNMS has started
and will wait 5 seconds between each try. You can increase the
number of times by creating
$OPENNMS_HOME/etc/opennms.conf and adding a
line like "
START_TIMEOUT=20" to double the number of
times it tests. You can set the value to
0 to have the
startup script not wait for OpenNMS to start.
Database is not running. If only about half or less of the
daemons are shown as running. You can check for this condition by
FATAL errors in the log files. You'll see
something like "
Error accessing database" in the
Dhcpd doesn't start. See the item in the next section.
JNI library problem. OpenNMS uses a few native C libraries that are accessed using JNI (Java Native Interface). Normally they just work, except users have started seeing problems when running Linux in native AMD64 mode where they end up using a 32-bit (x86) version of Java and a 64-bit (AMD64) version of the JNI libraries, or vice-versa. If you have this problem, you might want to try switching your version of Java from 32-bit to 64-bit or in the other direction.
Other. If the OpenNMS is installed, and the packages were not
forced in using options like "
application should run just fine. If not, OpenNMS has a robust
logging facility. Change to the logs directory (usually
/var/log/opennms) and search the logs, using
grep or your tool of choice, for words like
ERROR (the two highest log
severities). Those events should give you clues as to why OpenNMS is
The OpenNMS DHCP poller will fail to start most operating systems
(Linux, in particular) if you are running a DHCP client on the OpenNMS
server. You'll see this by running "
opennms -v status" and
seeing everything in the
running state, except for
Dhcpd. The solution is to edit
comment-out the "
Dhcpd. For example, this is what the section would look
like after modification to disable
<!-- Commented out since we have a DHCP client on this server <service> <name>OpenNMS:Name=Dhcpd</name> <class-name>org.opennms.netmgt.dhcpd.jmx.Dhcpd</class-name> <invoke pass="1" method="start"/> <invoke at="status" pass="0" method="status"/> <invoke at="stop" pass="0" method="stop"/> </service> -->
We discourage the running of OpenNMS on a server that is a DHCP client, both because OpenNMS may not be able to monitor DHCP servers on the network, and it is important that the monitoring server have a static IP address for receiving traps and to be reliant on as few network services as possible.
There are actually two main applications in the OpenNMS product: the application itself and the web-based User Interface (webUI). The webUI is implemented via Tomcat, and it is possible for Tomcat to be running and the OpenNMS application to be stopped and vice versa.
Before you do anything else, check the platform-specific installation notes in this guide. There are a number of common problems with Tomcat which are covered there.
If you can't get to the OpenNMS interface
http://[opennms server]:8080/opennms or
http://[opennms server]:8180/opennms on Debian -
where [opennms server] is the name of the OpenNMS machine) make sure
that Tomcat is running, and if necessary restart it. You should also be
able to access the main Tomcat page by leaving off the
Check to make sure that the OpenNMS web application is installed
correctly. In Tomcat's
/var/tomcat4), you should see a sub-directory
webapps. Starting in OpenNMS 1.1.4, we no
longer place the OpenNMS webapp directly into this
webapps directory. Inside of
webapps, you should only see a file (or symbolic
opennms.xml. If you see a directory
(or symbolic link) called
opennms, delete it (this
is not done automatically by the installer when upgrading).
CATALINA_HOME there is a sub-directory
called conf and in that directory is a file called
server.xml. Before OpenNMS 1.1.4, we needed to add
a "context" to that file, however this is no longer needed in OpenNMS
1.1.4. In fact, if you are upgrading from 1.1.3 or earlier, you must
manually remove this "context" from
is not done automatically when upgrading). Here is what it looks like
<!-- Example Server Configuration File --> <Server ... ... ... <Host ... > .... <Context path="/opennms" docBase="opennms" debug="0" reloadable="true"> <Logger classname="org.opennms.web.log.Log4JLogger" homeDir="/opt/OpenNMS"/> <Realm className="org.opennms.web.authenticate.OpenNMSTomcatRealm" homeDir="/opt/OpenNMS"/> </Context > </Host > ... </Server >
Tomcat will also need to be aware of various OpenNMS JARs and
libraries which provide the Java classes which make these directives
work. To give tomcat access to these resources, links are created in
$CATALINA_HOME/server/lib pointing to the locations
of the following OpenNMS JARs:
Tomcat has a "working" directory (usually
$CATALINA_HOME/work) where it stores the Java
source for JSP pages as well as the compiled classes for JSPs. Sometimes
users see problems with the webapp until the working directory is
cleared and Tomcat is restarted. We suggest running "
" if the above items fail
to get the webapp working.
program is used to
locate a suitable JRE for OpenNMS at install time that will be used for
the installer and also for running OpenNMS after installation. See the
section earlier in this manual on installing Java for OpenNMS. If you
installed Java in a location that
runjava cannot find, you
can use its "
-f" option to specify the JRE you want OpenNMS
You either need to set "
lc_messages = 'C'" in your
postgresql.conf file and restart PostgreSQL or upgrade to PostgreSQL 7.4
The installer does not always verify that an operation will succeed before executing the operation (e.g.: dropping database functions). In this case, it catches the exceptions returned from the database and checks the exception to see if it is an "okay" exception that should be ignored (e.g.: if the database function does not exist when attempting to drop a function).
In PostgreSQL 7.4 and later, a new client/server protocol is used
(version 3, to be specific) that provides specific error codes intended
for programmatic evaluation and we use these error codes if the server
provides them. However for PostgreSQL versions before 7.4, we require
that the database server error language be in English (the
C' locale) so that we can parse the text error messages.
If you are not running PostgreSQL 7.4 or newer, the installer executes a
bogus query against the database and checks for an expected result in
This is a warning that the installer might not update tables successfully. Make sure that your database is backed up, and run the installer again with the "-N" option to ignore this check.
As an attempt to ensure that the install will complete successfully, a check is done to see if there might be any rows with NULL columns that might be inserted into a column in an upgrade table with a NOT NULL constraint. This usually happens when a previous run of the installer failed, or might be due to modifications to the database schema or a really old version of the schema.
When the installer runs to upgrade the OpenNMS database from a
previous install, it often updates table schemas. When it does this, it
copies the data in a table to a temporary table (e.g.: the contents of
node are copied into
node_old_11033991291234). The original table is
deleted, the new version of the table is created, the data in the
temporary table is translated into the new table, and finally the
temporary table is deleted.
Unfortunately, the installer cannot check for all problems that might break translation, so sometimes the translation step fails. In this case, the installer "reverts" the table it was processing by dropping the new table and moving the temporary table into its place.
Reverting the table in case of a problem is all good and well, but
sometimes even it does not work properly, especially with older versions
of the Java installer. If this happens, the temporary table (the one
with "_old_" in it) is left with all of the old data. Until OpenNMS
1.1.5, this problem would not be caught the next time you ran the
installer. The installer would see that you did not have the
node table, for example, and happily continue to
create a new one for you. This is bad, especially since you probably
still have data that you care about that is now in the "old"
If you get this error, you will want to get rid of the table(s)
containing "_old_", however you want to first check if they contain
data. For example, if you have a single table,
node_old_11033991291234, no other
node_old_* tables, and no
table, you can simply rename the table:
# psql -h localhost -U opennms opennms
Welcome to psql 7.4.6, the PostgreSQL interactive terminal. Type: \copyright for distribution terms \h for help with SQL commands \? for help on internal slash commands \g or terminate with semicolon to execute query \q to quit opennms=#ALTER TABLE node_old_11033991291234 RENAME TO node;
You can use the "\d" command within
see what other tables exist in your database. You can use
SELECT count(*) from table;" (fill in the table
name for "table") to get a count of rows in any table. If you have empty
tables, you can just drop them. If you have multiple tables with data,
you will have to decide which table of data you want to keep or merge
them. This is left as a (not so simple) exercise for the reader.
Over time OpenNMS extends its database schema to improve functionality. This error can happen because of the way certain administrative functions in older versions of OpenNMS functioned or if the database was modified outside of OpenNMS (the latter is common for larger sites). Over time OpenNMS has introduced additional foreign key constraints on its database. These are used to ensure internal database consistency when data in two tables are tied together by a shared key. For example, each event can have a pointer to the node that it is related to; there is a foreign key constraint that requires that an event must not point at a node that does not exist.
Starting with 1.1.5, when we upgrade the database schema, we first check for rows that violate any new foreign key constraints that might be added. There are three options to to fix these errors:
Remove the offending rows. This is suggested if the number of
rows that violate the constraint is small in comparison to the total
number of rows in the affected table and if you don't need the data.
$OPENNMS_HOME/bin/install -C <constraint>
-X" to delete the offending rows.
Mark the key in the offending rows to NULL. This is suggested
if you need to keep the data around or are not yet sure about what
to do with it. Use "
<constraint>" to mark the key column to NULL in the
Fix the key in the offending rows. This is for advanced users and requires a good amount of effort. This is left as an exercise for the reader.
OpenNMS is a community supported project. Please keep that in mind when seeking help on the program, as no one gets paid to work on the project (unless it is through a commercial support contract).
Check the release notes for this release. They are in the Documentation section of the OpenNMS project page at SourceForge.
The main OpenNMS site is a Wiki. As a community project, there is a lot of good advice and information available there. In particular, we suggest checking the above-mentioned release notes, the FAQ, the bug database and Google before posting to a mailing list. You might also find useful information in the old FAQ, but please realize that this information may be out of date.
OpenNMS maintains a number of active mailing lists on SourceForge:
A low traffic, moderated mailing list for OpenNMS announcements. All posts to this list are duplicated on the opennms-discuss list.
This is a fairly high traffic list of all updates to the CVS repositories on SourceForge. Moderated. Only CVS updates are posted here (no discussion).
This list is for code development discussion.
This is the main OpenNMS discuss list. It's pretty friendly. Pretty much anything goes here, however it is suggested that installation-related issues to go opennms-install.
This is a great list for new users to OpenNMS. The main focus is installation issues (cleared up by this great documentation, right?) but most "newbie" questions are welcome here.
Whether or not to use maps in network management is as divisive an issue as abortion or gun control (grin). OpenNMS does have a small contributed map system, which still needs a lot of work. We can talk about it here.
We have a small users group in Tokyo, Japan. This list is for meeting announcements or help in Japanese.
If you are using OpenNMS in a production environment, or are considering it, you might be interested in commercial support. The OpenNMS Group maintains the OpenNMS project, and we also offer support, training, consulting services and custom development.